The App is Too Fast!

7 min read

We’d just finished a review session of the latest development of Cadence GUI with Judy. The feedback was generally positive except for one thing:

When switching between future and past appointments: “Slow that down somehow to make it more obvious what’s happening.”

We’d just spent a month adding more features to the new graphical user interface for Cadence, Epic’s outpatient patient scheduling application. One of the goals we’d set for the project was that a workflow would be as fast as the existing terminal application. Sincerely, that was a lofty goal in many ways, especially as we were in very uncharted territory and also wanted to add a number of often requested features to common workflows.

Of course, the existing terminal-based application experience couldn’t be modified to make Cadence GUI work (especially workflows or speed). There were a lot of developer hours put into to how to maintain these two distinct applications that needed to share a common code. If you’ve ever worked on a terminal/console application that has input and output, it may not surprise you that these types of operations are …, frankly, everywhere. No architectural dig was necessary to find that IO code was spread around the code as we began to adapt code and was so frustrating. It wasn’t a bug either — it was just the way code was written then. Sometimes we’d find them early in development and sometimes the elusive buggers would be uncovered in a QA pass (obscure configurations often aided in their discovery). It would have been an unnecessary abstraction to build an application in the late 1980s that could have IO that was directed at anything but a terminal. The application performance would have suffered for zero gain for the user experience. MUMPS code needed to be tight and efficient.

I’m planning a blog post specifically about some of the challenges we faced regarding this type of work and the communication channel, so, I’ll skip ahead for now.

One of the first screens we wanted to show was a patient summary view. The screen would show a summary of the patient demographics, DNK appointment statistics and upcoming appointments. It would serve as a “patient dashboard” and launching point to other application functionality. This experience was not similar to the one that the EpicCare team had been building. While we shared some general UI patterns (big row of buttons floating at the top of the screen), they’d made some choices that wouldn’t work well for a Cadence user (unsurprisingly, EpicCare Ambulatory needed to make quite a few design and architectural changes years later to accommodate improved workflows and capabilities). Specifically in this case (and in contrast to EpicCare at the time), a Cadence scheduler might need to open more than one patient at a time.

Cadence Patient Home

The app workflow to patient selection and launching the review screen was snappy. In a head-down side by side comparison, the terminal UI was faster, but it wasn’t offering as much utility. The additional features were ones that were requested, but not available directly and consistently in the terminal app. We were happy with the results.

While obviously nervous about the demonstration to Judy we were reasonably confident that it would show well.

And it did go well, except for feedback about switching between future and past appointments.

It wasn’t a lot of data and the request to fetch past appointments was quick. When the Cadence scheduler would click on the “past” appointments tab/label, the new list would pop in what seemed like instantly (for back then — it was 1994, so the common experience was that things would be a bit sluggish).

”Can you slow that down?” — Judy

The team lead wisely, after a few rounds of “huh?”, said we’d look into some options.

If you weren’t doing application development for Windows 3.11, you may have already “solved” the problem we had with many modern solutions.

  • Animation
  • Colors or Opacity
  • Fonts
  • Layout changes

Windows 3.11 Development Issues

Here’s what wasn’t available to us:

  • We had 16 colors available generally, or a dithered 256. Opacity was either 100% or 0%.
  • There was no animation framework (and frankly at the FPS of a common computer back then, it would have been annoying)
  • We were limited to the fonts installed on the OS — and those weren’t many. The standard font used in VB at the time was MS Sans. It was perfectly ordinary. Sometimes we used bold. Other times, not. Purely using it as an indicator wasn’t great.

The Limitless Color Palette

The Joy of Colors, Visual Basic 3.0 Style

Let me zoom that for you. It may not be obvious yet though …

The Joy of Colors, Visual Basic 3.0 Style, zoomed 1

That may have not been enough, so one last time:

The Joy of Colors, Visual Basic 3.0 Style, zoomed 2

As you can see, all but the middle red color are dithered. While we did use dithered colors occasionally, we did try to avoid situations where they were used with text on top as it was too hard to read. Dithered colors looked … odd … generally.

We essentially had 16 pre-chosen by Microsoft solid colors to use where we could be assured they’d look OK to most folks.


Visual Basic 3.0 was a single threaded application. If the application was animating, it wasn’t doing other things for the user. There wasn’t a graphic processor that was able to offload animations … there just wasn’t a good way to do animations that were effective.


We tried quite a few different things before the next demonstration with Judy. At the time, there was a silly way to animate a GIF file — but it was all on the main application thread. For a brief period, we had a a build of Cadence that would show a silly little dancing bear that would pop-up and dance when switching between future and past appointments.

Needless to say, that wasn’t an option. I recall us floating the idea to her (with something other than a bear!). But, we didn’t like it either because while it was animating, the application was blocked. That wasn’t a great way to make the application “as fast” as Cadence text/terminal.

Solved with this one Hack

Oh, my head hurts that this was the primary solution that we used for quite a while to satisfy the issue:


Sub btnPast_Click()
    fraFuture.visible = True
    fraPast.visible = False
End Sub

DoEvents. A necessary evil in many Visual Basic applications over the decades. When something didn’t quite work as expected, developers would often turn to DoEvents as a solution without fully appreciating that there were grave risks to its use. The core functionality of DoEvents was to allow the application to process events/messages in the message queue for the application. The events were in order, but unless the developer had planned for them, it could lead to disastrous results.

Internally, hiding the fraFuture by using the visible property would pop a WM_PAINT message onto the message queue for the application (along with the dirty region). When application code wasn’t running, Windows would process the queue (to empty), including WM_PAINTs (which were in the queue, but combined to prevent cascading updates). As I mentioned, this is a single threaded application, and processing the queue only happens when there isn’t Visual Basic code executing (VB handled this automatically).

When using DoEvents though, it would force the queue to be processed. So, the screen would update immediately (along generally with anything else that may have been queued).

So, what we’d done: introduce a flicker.

  • Hide
  • Repaint
  • Show
  • Repaint (which happened naturally by showing the new frame)

DoEvents was the source of a number of issues over the years as it “solved” problems — and created dozens of new problems.

Developers frequently neglected to handle situations where the user had interacted with the application during a busy state, DoEvents would allow those queued requests (like typing, or clicking a mouse) to process — and happen immediately, even though the normally sequential code hadn’t returned.

Sub btnPast_Click()
    fraFuture.visible = True
    DoEvents ☠️ 
    fraPast.visible = False
End Sub

☠️ DoEvents: Process the queue including user originated events. Had the user clicked on a button that closed the form they were using? What if something else made the fraFuture Invisible? Or maybe they clicked back on the other tab while it was busy or … INSTABILITY!!


She was happy with the result. We weren’t, but moved forward regardless. There was lots more to do.


Do you know that acronym? It was an important statistic for schedulers.

Abbreviations are Hard, My Journey to Cadence

9 min read
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By the end of October 1994, we had a rudimentary demonstration of a outpatient scheduling application written for Windows. It was no more than 1% of Cadence functionality and little to none of the code we’d written survived to become part of the final application. How did we get there? Great question!

My green tea has steeped at 160F/71C for 270 seconds, it’s time to write.

At the beginning of October, I transferred to Cadence full time as a software developer. Cadence is Epic’s outpatient appointment scheduling system. If you’ve made an appointment with a healthcare organization using Epic, there’s a reasonably decent chance that Cadence was used for your appointment.

To debunk a tiny piece of recurring fake news: Epic does do comprehensive data integrations and has for 30+ years including integrating with scheduling systems that aren’t written by Epic.

I joined an existing Cadence developer that had been at Epic about a year longer than I. A few things had to happen before we began doing any real coding though. First, we excitedly installed our fresh copies of Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0. (Ok, I was excited, I don’t know that he was as much as I). For all the terrible jokes and complaints that have been made over the years about Visual Basic, especially earlier editions, the jokes were often based on opinion rather than fact. Building small utilities and applications with VB 3.0 to 6.0 was always remarkably easy. You could do circles around the common competition at the time: C and native Windows APIs. The true challenge was that it had few rules and had few if any programming guidelines. So, everything goes (and lots of things went wild).


After tinkering around with Visual Basic for a day or so, we were able to align our schedules with something that happened very infrequently — a few customers were going to be at Epic to learn how to enhance EpicCare and to code in Visual Basic. We were asked to attend so that we could gain some insight into how to program into Visual Basic and how EpicCare was constructed. The training took place in the old Rosewood conference room over a few days. There were two customers and two of us, and a few different EpicCare staff did the training.

Upon training completion, we provided some honest feedback and a few days later, the other developer and I both found ourselves in Carl’s office. Ugh.

He scolded us for our critical and honest feedback. I’m not going to sugar coat the feedback we gave: the training was poor. Not only did the developers not communicate well to the customers, they failed routinely to explain things in a coherent way that any of us could understand. I know these Epic developers didn’t do training frequently (or even have much customer interaction), but it was a substandard event. The only thing that was clear to us was that the two EpicCare developers had limited knowledge about how Visual Basic worked or why they’d made the architecture decisions they’d made. It was a slapped together system that had definitely prioritized product over medium to long-term architecture choices. It wasn’t a sustainable design.

We were instructed by Carl to take the EpicCare code and use it. That choice hurt. He’d also established a “demo” deadline with our TL.

This feedback sucked. The irony of the feedback, like our feedback had been, was that it wasn’t meaningfully actionable. My best summary is: “be more Midwest Nice.” Certainly, providing constructive and critical feedback is preferred whenever possible. But, the training was so broken that there was no way to just “fix a few things.” It’s also difficult to provide effective criticism when you can’t leverage other more positive similar training experiences. (The training I’d taken for other Epic systems and APIs had been very good up to this point, but that wasn’t a particularly valuable comparison).

We got to work in spite of this morale setback. After we had some time to review their code more away from the EpicCare developers, we found further evidence that the code was based on more than a handful of misconceptions of how Visual Basic 3 code could be structured and used. In hindsight, it is obvious to me that the team had nearly zero awareness of how Windows actually worked and how Visual Basic worked on top of Windows.

By no means would I have claimed to be an expert in Windows software development at the time. Back in the Windows for Workgroups 3.11 days, there wasn’t as much documentation available for “Windows Internals.” Even so, there were some decent books available for Windows programmers in C. Specifically, Programming Windows by Charles Petzold are classics and have been read by hundreds of thousands of Windows programmers and date back to 1988. The great things about those books wasn’t that they were entirely reader-friendly, but they did explain the Windows operating system and its operations, from hWNDs to message queues and beyond. Visual Basic had to operate with the same restrictions as any other Windows application, so knowledge of general Windows programming would have applied to Visual Basic programming quite nicely. But the team hadn’t done that. In fact, some of the early choices they made later caused many technical and resource issues.


I fully appreciate the deadlines that were established for us and originally the EpicCare team. A beautifully designed and architected product may never ship or may be so delayed that competition has an opportunity to gain traction minimizing sales. It’s a dance. A balance. But, the effort to ship ship ship caused no shortage of issues later. These issues then rippled to other Epic applications that found their footing by copying the original EpicCare code (and some of the new Cadence GUI code).

During the month of October while we began hacking together a basic scheduling workflow, I learned more about Cadence from other team members; well, I think all four of them. On the surface, Cadence seems straightforward and like it would be ripe for disruption by some innovative software startup. But, the beauty of Cadence isn’t particularly in what is seen by and end-user as much as what it does behind the scenes. In fact, the general surface simplicity of Cadence is what makes it generally have a decent user experience and makes it straightforward to learn. (The general issue with workflows that are appointment related isn’t specifically about the booking of the appointment, it’s the data collection for the appointment that bog the workflow down, from collection of a copay to updating insurance, answering routine screening questions, etc.). There’s a lot of what we usually called “business logic” to run Cadence behind the scenes. There are potentially hundreds of conflicts, scheduling templates/rules, availability issues, patient preferences, etc. that all must be applied rapidly so that an appointment slot can be located and confirmed with the patient.

”Oh, my computer is being slow today” was never something we expected an appointment scheduler to need to mumble to a patient. The underlying algorithms and user interface needed to be FAST. When booking hundreds of appointments during a shift, waiting for the computer is a tragic experience. The Cadence terminal-based UI (I’ll likely refer to it as Cadence Text) was snappy and predictable.


One frustrating aspect about many terminal and GUI applications is that they don’t respond well to type-ahead. If the application happens to have a key pressed buffer and the user is typing while the application is blocked (during computation), does the application drop keystrokes? Many applications are inconsistent. So many that I know it’s uncommon to type-ahead. Mobile apps don’t even provide a way to do that on a virtual keyboard.

It was a thrill to watch a proficient Cadence user book an appointment. It was often so fast you’d wonder if they’d even done the right thing. They learned the shortcuts, they knew what prompts would be displayed and how to react to them. The only real waiting was to verbally read appointment options to the patient. We had a mission for Cadence GUI: Make type-ahead a real thing that works. Type-ahead is far easier to do on a terminal than it is in a modern application — this fact would haunt my nights over the decades as Epic moved platforms and upgraded operating systems.

As we started with the EpicCare code, we began to delete all of the EpicCare-specific modules, both in the Visual Basic code and on the MUMPS server. It didn’t take too many days before we had a working connection to the MUMPS server and Chronicles. I plan on talking more about that in a complete post, so I won’t get into it now. It’s an interesting topic, especially to learn about the progress of how communication from non-terminal-captive applications worked over the years. There were some good and bad stops along the way.

Unfortunately, I don’t fully remember which workflows we attempted to demonstrate for the end-of-October reveal. However, I suspect that it was two things primarily: the main patient overview screen (like showing the patient’s demographics and future appointments), and a basic “make appointment” form. That functionality would have demoed well.


I’m confident that one of the earliest forms I authored was the appointment entry form. Why? Because of what I didn’t know at the time. Apparently, the accepted abbreviation for appointment is appt. I did not know that. When creating a user interface in Visual Basic 3, the developer would create what is called a “Form” file, ending with the file extension frm.

frmAppEntry in Visual Basic 3

This wasn’t a huge deal by any means, but in my defense I may have chosen the file name before I settled on the VB name:

apptentry.frm not valid filename

Let the record show, as you can see from the screen shot:

apptentry.frm not valid filename

8.3 Character File name limitations

As Windows 3.11 (and earlier) were still running on Microsoft DOS, Windows inherited the limitations of the DOS file system. The limits were that a file name could be up to 8 characters long, and the file extension no more than 3.

Foiled by 8.3

Demonstration and more Deadlines

I know that we successfully demonstrated a few very basic workflows by the end of October and that success was immediately turned into a new Thanksgiving deadline. My more mature self sees these as pointless development marches with deadlines that reflected zero knowledge of how much time building the next set of features would take. The worst type of project management.

And yet, off we went for the next deadline.

I’ll talk more specifically in a later blog post about some of the Visual Basic issues in the those years that we encountered when doing development and eventually what we tried to do about it.

A Change was Scheduled

5 min read

Unfortunately, my last “big” project on the Cohort Lab team was frustrating and demoralizing (read more). As I mentioned, I talked to my TL about wanting a change. At first, it was just minor grumbles and expressing some desire for a new bigger project. Coincidentally, and luckily, a friend from college had just entered into the job market and was already making significantly more than I was at Epic. Although it wasn’t work that I wanted to do at the time (he was working as a full-time consultant) it was very useful as leverage. My career change tactics became not so subtle hints and I made it clear that moving to the suburbs of Chicago where he was employed wouldn’t be a big deal for me, especially as my one year lease on my apartment was ending (and I’d already decided I wanted to find a new apartment that had an in-unit clothes washer and drier).

She took my request to Carl and promised to help me navigate options.

I didn’t throw down an ultimatum of “must be on a new team by September 1, 1994 or I’ll leave” … I trusted her to work on it with Carl and make a plan.

During this period a number of noteworthy things happened.

Epic bought a building!

The Medical Circle building was bursting at the seams. Offices were cramped, doubled (and tripled!) and parking was at a premium. The parking lot overflowed with cars and only early arrivals were able to park in the lot. To meet the demands of the growing staff numbers (around 50-60), a new place was desperately needed. Epic bought a former school at 5301 Tokay Boulevard in Madison and as soon as occupancy and networking were in place, several teams were moved into the building. It wasn’t ready for general occupancy, and a lot of construction was needed. Cubicles were arranged in open areas and some offices were available. I initially shared an office. More accurately, it hadn’t been an office: it was the size of a small cafeteria. I don’t remember if we knew what the original purpose of this large space was or how it had been used, but it was about 60ft x 30ft (9m x 18m). It was ridiculous with a large sloped ceiling and one set of windows in an alcove area. While it would have been amusing to try to set up in the middle of this room, cabling and electrical weren’t available. Instead, we setup as far away as possible.

Hi hi! Fire Marshall! Look at how many extension cords and power strips we needed to make this desk arrangement work!

I’m know there are software startups with a dozen employees that have been crammed into rooms smaller than this was (I’ve interviewed at a few). The wall arrangement wasn’t permanent as the room was eventually converted into other more practical space.

I wish I remembered the specifics of the technology used for making the phone and networking connections between the two Epic buildings. There weren’t many options back then and it was either an expensive leased line or a carefully pointed wireless system (designed for point to point wireless). I know Epic had wireless systems installed at the Tokay buildings but I don’t remember the timeline. Either way, the connections weren’t always reliable. Think better than Satellite TV service. As most development happened direct to a server over a terminal or locally on a PC, it didn’t need to be blazing fast (blazing 9600 baud?).

Working Remotely

Not too surprisingly, having two buildings that were practically speaking too far apart to walk (about 0.9 miles one way) was fine. There was an occasional glitch where all connectivity was lost to the main building (phones and network) but it wasn’t too frequent that it became a big issue. Collectively, we still were able to work together even though we weren’t in the same general location.

I got a PC!

The Cohort Lab team members were last to get PCs because the team generally had the least need for them. But, there was a general push to get Microsoft Office applications available and that meant rolling out Windows 3.11 for Workgroups to the masses. PowerPoint! For UGM that year there was a drive to have all presentations use PowerPoint. Star Wipes 4 Ever! (the glorious star wipe may not have been a feature yet though unfortunately)

As I had the most experience with a PC and had the most interest, I was the recipient. Honestly, in the era before we had Internet access, having a Windows PC for the type of terminal-based development I’d been doing on Cohort lab wasn’t needed, but it was a welcome upgrade. Epic bought a lot of Gateway computers eventually, but I don’t know if the first one I received was a Gateway (Gateway: Holstein cows like branding.) It’s dissapointing that the Wikipedia article doesn’t show any of the shipping boxes.

A new TEAM!

Epic’s Legacy product (the EHR/EMR), AKA EpicCare, AKA EpicCare Ambulatory, wouldn’t be the only graphical application sold by Epic. Rather than starting from scratch as had been done with Legacy, the decision was made to create a graphical interface for Cadence, Epic’s ambulatory (patient) scheduling product. I wasn’t privy to the selection nor did I consider it much at the time. Looking back at that now, I would have argued that concentrating more on the user experience for the terminal-based Cadence would have provided tangible lower-cost wins allowing resources to be devoted to building up a larger portfolio of products earlier.

But, that’s not what happened.

A new Cohort Team Member

Once the team transfer had been decided, Cohort Lab needed to find a replacement. It wasn’t long before I was mentoring the new employee that was joining Cohort. My first mentee!

Transfer Scheduled

My first day on the Cadence GUI team was scheduled near the end of September 1994. We’d be using Visual Basic 3.0, released earlier in 1994. My first month on Cadence is the topic for next time.

My Most Embarrassing Bug ...

6 min read

My day started like many others at Epic except that it was a support week for me. I’d grown more capable and could deftly handle most support calls from customers with no assistance and I no longer suffered from insta-panic when the front desk notified me that I had a parked call from a customer.

Take a deep breath, grab a pad and pen and steady myself for maximum attention mode. “Hi, this is Aaron."

"Hey Aaron, this is Dave.” (It really was Dave, one of the primary contacts from one of our customers. He passed away 11 years ago unfortunately 😢). He continued, “I just finished with the install and everything went well except I found something unusual that may be a problem.”

My stomach tightened and my pulse quickened. Weeks earlier, I had done the Cohort release packing and testing, so I was disappointed that I missed something.

DevOps and Stuff

During the period I was on Cohort teams were individually responsible for the distribution of their software to customers. There wasn’t a “Release Team.” My built-in predictive algorithm suggests you are considering how this isn’t just early “DevOps and Stuff!” 😃

Releasing Wasn’t Easy or Simple

There were some core utilities supplied by the Foundations team to export and import various MUMPS things including routines, global data, and Chronicles related data/meta-data. It was functional. It wasn’t easy or simple.There wasn’t any scripting or automation. There was no CI/CD. (Well, there was Carl Dvorak, but he didn’t pack releases then.) Continuous and automated deployments during the development cycle remained an unfulfilled dream for many years.

We tested the software on all of the system types used by customers, including 2 flavors of Unix, VMS, and DataTree. Fun times! (As there were only 5 Cohort customers, it was bad-luck that there was that much variety in MUMPS/OS combinations)

Each release step required detailed documentation so that the correct processes were performed exactly as specified. Pages and pages of hand-typed instructions in an editor with less-than-markdown formatting capabilities.

As part of a release, we’d MANUALLY analyze each completed project (and had moved successfully to a “build” environment). Anything new was packed and double checked (insiders: a shout-out to my old friends ETAN, ^%ZeRSAVE, ^%ZeRLOAD, ^%ZeGSAVE, and ^%ZeGLOAD!!).

Any single release could include hundreds of ingredients. Leaving one item out could result in a failed release and breaking a production environment at worst, or causing a bug in the application. (Yes, customers would ideally do a backup FIRST …). Thankfully, there was no rambling preamble in the documentation like websites with recipes these days.

For Epic staff that started after the mid 1990s, they enjoyed the new “integrated” release cycle.

Multiple Releases To Rule Them All

Before the single integrated Epic release became common — every Epic team released their software when they were ready. It wasn’t quite controlled chaos, but it was often frustrating (RPGers: maybe chaotic neutral?). For applications that were integrated in some way (like Resolute Billing with Cadence and Cohort), the lack of an integrated release was annoying and confusing for customers and Epic internally. While not a constant source of consternation, the challenges of non-synchronized release schedules included two common issues:

  • Foundations/Chronicles version dependencies (App A was developed on Foundations 1.5, yet App B needed 1.6 — App A hadn’t been thoroughly tested with 1.6).
  • App A needed App B integration and was ready, but App B wouldn’t be installed for an unknown number of months.

The multiple Epic releases for different apps also impacted customers as they had to manage and schedule multiple releases. It wasn’t great.

What Had I Done????

In any case, I’d done the release packing, so it was on me for whatever had happened if the issue was related to my packing.

Dave seemed like he was in a good mood, so whatever he’d discovered wasn’t an emergency. The conversation went something like this:

“So, I discovered something very odd when I was looking at the new SQL support that I wasn’t expecting and also wasn’t documented. I was looking through the included SQL queries that were included and we will definitely will use them. Except …”

Here it is. I tentatively acknowledged, “yes?"

"I found a few queries named something like this:“


I was aghast.

Internal Only

Items prefaced with X_ had been a convention for years for internal only stuff that would not be released to customers. I’d mistakenly packed up the X_* stuff from development and shipped it as part of the release. X_ATC_ was the prefix I used for my items (another convention at Epic was to use your initials as an alias rather than your name).

Yay me.

Me: “Oh! That’s a mistake! Those are my test SQL queries I use when I’m exploring ideas. I rename them when I’m done. But, I definitely didn’t mean to include them.” I likely apologized way way too much.

He went on to list a few more that I’d included. But, the fact that I’d managed to include my test queries … slap forehead. I know there wasn’t anything embarrassing in any of them — they were just my playground queries.

”You can delete them or enjoy them.” I had already opened the editor to see what was in them. I may have never typed as fast as I had at that moment: what in Judy’s name had I shipped? (It was just as I said — just test queries that worked or were commented out).

We both had a good laugh about the mistake. OK, laughed with him but was not feeling the humor. It took me quite a while to get over the blunder. I hadn’t realized at the time that he was trying to be as serious as he could at the start of the call.

I got a minor scolding from my TL as it was a non-serious oversight and my own embarrassment served as a sufficient life lesson.

I suspect that I inadvertently ignored the test queries during release packing as I was so accustomed to seeing them everywhere — they became part of the working system. I had queries everywhere when I was testing the new Epic SQL functionality. I did write a release tool for the next release to delete the X_* queries if they were still present.

I thankfully did not repeat this mistake again. What’s your most do-no-harm embarrassing software bug?

I Wanted a New Job After This Project

9 min read

Have you worked on a project that you really never completely understood? A project where you worked on it and completed it and couldn’t have answered many specifics about what it really did or was? Often, these projects take you out of your comfort zone but eventually the core begins to click and it starts to become something that clicks. That wasn’t the case in this instance.

I don’t remember any project I’ve worked on since I started doing professional software development that was assigned to me where I had a nearly complete lack of understanding from start to finish for a multiple week project (I’ve inflicted this type of pain on myself hundreds of times!).

Good news!

I think this was one of my final large projects when working on Cohort Lab. It started out poorly:

TL: “The other developer needs to work on an important data interface for a customer and he’s in the best position to work on that. We’ve also committed to finishing this other project that he had started working on and I need you to complete it instead. He’s made some progress though and it shouldn’t take too long to complete. He’ll be available to answer questions but the other project has a hard deadline.”

She went on to explain her general understanding of the project and the requirements. I met with the other developer so he could dump on me the work he’d completed and the documentation that was associated with the project. I can’t even sugar coat the wording there — dump best describes the transfer. PLOP. PLOP. The existing work was definitely incomplete and he hadn’t started what in many ways was the most important part. My sense is that he may have thought 70-80% of the project was complete. In reality, many parts had been started and some were more complete than others. It wasn’t 70-80% complete.

I stumbled into Levey-Jennings

The project was to implement a laboratory quality control charting system for Cohort Lab. In particular, the customer request was for a Levey-Jennings chart. Our documentation included one long academic paper from the late 1980s about how to compute and how a graph could be constructed. In addition to that documentation, we had some examples.

That was it.

The other developer had spent most of his project time building data structures and doing some of the calculations. I thought I’d never actually need that math I’d learned in high school and college. But, here it was…smacking me in the face and mocking me for selling my college text books.

No Rosetta Stone Available

I spent many hours trying to make sense of the code, the paper, and what was left to do. I know there are people that enjoy the writing style of a academic paper, but I am not in that group. The documentation and examples we had clearly were intended to be read by experts in the field. I wasn’t an expert. I didn’t even know an expert. Oddly, neither were our customers — they wanted the software to do this, but could provide no helpful guidance.

If you’ve been reading along with my Epic journey, you may remember that Cohort Lab was an application that ran entirely within a terminal. There was not a reasonable way to do “charting” on screen. Even with my skills related to manipulating the screen and drawing and animating various ASCII characters, creating an on-screen representation of this data wasn’t practical (80x25, or in wide mode a 120x25 characters doesn’t provide the detail needed).

Customers wanted to print the Levey-Jennings graph.

The printing that was common at the time used dot matrix printers. Fast and Loud (no, not the TV show, although there were many dramatic moments with the printer spewing and spewing followed by the panic of trying to halt it’s enthusiasm). And while The Print Shop could do some amazing things with dot matrix printers, the printer technology wasn’t up to the task of creating a professional graph.

Epic I think at the time had three laser printers and one of the printers was in the printer closet down the hall from my shared office. Laser printers weren’t very common. They weren’t very reliable at printing. Unjamming became my jam during this project.

So, I needed to figure out how to wrangle a laser printer into making graphics from MUMPS. The Epic printer drivers/engines were text focused. Actually, they couldn’t do anything but print text. I found some documentation that suggested how various proprietary options existed to communicate with the printers and print something other than text. PCL came up a few times, but customers weren’t consistently using printers that supported PCL then. To add to the complexity, connecting to the laser printer from MUMPS running on Unix (or OpenVMS) system, and then getting the printer to switch to PCL was very poorly documented (remember, no Internet!). I tried. I consulted internal experts. Epic was too tiny to have meaningful technical contacts at hardware manufacturers. That approach was abandoned as it seemed like it would be a project much larger than what I was working on (and there weren’t staff resources for that).

If you’re keeping score, … I didn’t understand the charts, the lab tests, the math, the terminology, much of the code that had been dumped on me, or how to get charts to appear on a laser printer.

We did have documentation available (man pages and a basic user manual) for a graphing system called gnuplot. (Sorry, the official website isn’t HTTPS!!, so here’s a Wikipedia article if you’re interested.). From their home page, it looks like version 2.0 or 3.5 would have been available.

Fade to a cool movie-like montage of a software developer looking at manuals and trying to understand how to piece these parts together into a releasable software package …

It took a while to get a basic set of moving parts together and operating. During the montage, my struggles included:

  • how to install gnuplot
  • how to shell out of MUMPS and execute a random application that could be installed in a variety of locations (the MUMPS answer to shell out is to use the BANG! syntax: !gnuplot)
  • how to detect if it was available and the right version
  • how to generate a file that could be read by gnuplot
  • how to trigger a print to the laser printer after executing gnuplot
  • how to delete the file after the laser printer had completed the print
  • how to return to MUMPS after all of this, otherwise leaving a stuck MUMPS process that an IT admin would need to clobber

But, the real challenge — how to take all of this data that made very little sense to me and get it to print something that represented the graph that customers were looking for. I only had a terminal. In all but a few cases there was not a way for me to check the results without physically printing the page (I learned how to better read the gnuplot instructions so I could spot obvious issues).

Over and over and over. And over. I began to show progress to the team by taping each print to the walls of my shared office as high as I could reach. I filled 3 walls of the office. My step count went through the roof and there was likely a path worn from my desk to the printer closet from the trips back and forth. It took me a long while to get charts to print. I tried to make it enjoyable by hanging both successes and failures. Some prints would be empty. Some would have lines that went off the page, or were too small, too big, wrong, flattened, squished, stretched, … I had a fixed set of data that I was using so that I could know when I’d unlocked the secrets to Levey-Jennings Charts. I fixed some issues (math and data) with the dumped code as I honed in on getting a final result.

The project went long — I don’t know that I could have done anything differently though to expedite the work given the unknowns. For some reason, this project really didn’t click with me. I enjoy finding and fixing a bug way more than a project dump, especially of this complexity and with this many unknowns.

I know this was a project that customers selected and was important to them. But, it was miserable for me. It deflated me in a way that I rarely have felt over the decades. I knew the “parts”, but the “whole” remained elusive. I couldn’t find the passion I normally apply to my work. The end result was “clunky” at best as it required so many things to come together to get a successful print.

I was deflated. The result worked. But I could find no satisfaction as the project felt thoroughly OK for what it was. I couldn’t make it better in a reasonable amount of time with the information and resources that we had available. Rarely do I accept “OK” as it relates to my output. I expect myself to add to projects I’m involved with a bit of bedazzling but this project had nothing. No shine or glitter. No hidden gems.

It wasn’t even glossy: it was flat-matte.

It just existed as a hot-glued graphing contraption in the remote areas of Cohort. I didn’t know where a hint of sparkle could have been added.


My TL wasn’t overly surprised that I requested something “new” at Epic after completing this project. It was one of a few moments at Epic over the years where my conversation with a TL or Carl veered into the territory of me looking for other jobs. I had much much longer periods of my Epic career where I wasn’t doing something I enjoyed, but this project had really gotten under my skin. Too many unknowns along with the dump of code and not even having the satisfaction that the end that customers would use this regularly made it feel like a total waste of time to that young programmer.

I just asked my Cohort TL if she remembered any customer deploying any of this work…:



Have you had any projects that just never clicked for you from start to finish? Tell me!